characters Daughters of Isis Women of Ancient Egypt Penguin History ´ E-book or Kindle E-pub

Read Daughters of Isis Women of Ancient Egypt Penguin History

characters Daughters of Isis Women of Ancient Egypt Penguin History ´ E-book, or Kindle E-pub ô In ancient Egypt women enjoyed a legal social and sexual independence unrivalled by their Greek or Roman sisters or in fact by most women until the late nineteenth century They could own and trEnt Egypt weaves a fascinating picture of daily life – marriage and the home work and play grooming and religion – viewed from a female perspective in a work that is engaging original and constantly surprisin. This was an enlightening read into the society of Ancient Egypt While a little fact heavy at times the author did a commendable job of providing insight into the history of a society heavily influenced by the Royals with little recorded of the everyday occurrences which majority of their population lived daily Occasionally there is deviance from the title of the book being that little information is known in some cases of a woman's life so the author instead focuses on other facets of life Interesting nonetheless of course however some chapters contain little details into the actual life of a woman although this is due to the small amount of recorded information available rather than the author's own discretion This reader feels the book was a general view of Egyptian society with a strong focus on the role of women rather than focusing on women exclusively

Free read Ë E-book, or Kindle E-pub õ Joyce A. Tyldesley

K outside the home marry foreigners and live alone without the protection of a male guardian Some of them even rose to rule Egypt as ‘female kings’ Joyce Tyldesley’s vivid history of how women lived in anci. Daughters of Isis is an accessible well written fascinating social history of ancient Egypt that not only discusses women's lives but all the aspects of life of which women were a part If you were going to read just one book about ancient Egypt this is the one I'd recommend

Joyce A. Tyldesley õ 9 characters

Daughters of Isis Women of Ancient Egypt Penguin HistoryIn ancient Egypt women enjoyed a legal social and sexual independence unrivalled by their Greek or Roman sisters or in fact by most women until the late nineteenth century They could own and trade in property wor. A lot of speculation Still it's a worthwhile read concerning that unambiguous evidence is scarce and that the author realizes that many tidbits could be explained in different waysThe difference between the fertile Black Land and the infertile Red Land has always been both clear and extreme and many visitors to Egypt have noted how it is literally possible to stand with one foot in the desert sand and one foot on the green cultivation This perpetual reminder of the stark contrast between the living and the dead the fertile and the infertile left an indelible mark on secular and religious thought and the constant cycle of birth death and rebirth became an endlessly repeated theme of Egyptian life cDo not spare your son work when you can make him do it Teach your son to write plough catch birds and set traps in case there is a year of low Nile so that he will be able to reap the benefit of what he has learnedLate Period scribal advice to parents cTo a people who continually sought out and emphasized the reassurance of links with the past and who at all times felt an unusually deep bond with their ancestors the realities of an unchanging social structure were not so much stifling as immensely comforting cIn a land of exotic and unusual customs where the king lived as a god the gods took the form of animals and the entire population appeared obsessed with death women were acknowledged to be one of the strangest phenomena Their distinctive exotic beauty coupled with fantastic rumours of lax Egyptian morals and wanton Egyptian females simply added to their fascination and served as an inspiration to the authors and poets of Greece and Rome It is this rather decadent image of Egyptian womanhood which has been perpetuated by modern authors from Shakespeare onwards so that even today the names of Nefertiti and Cleopatra conjure up a vision of the ultimate femme fataleBut just how accurate is this portrait of the active independent and sexually liberated Egyptian lady cFortunately the Egyptians have left us two contrasting means of studying their attitude towards women An examination of contemporary arts painting sculpture and literature can provide us with an idealized view of womanhood by allowing us to study the image which the Egyptians themselves wished to present to the world At a down to earth level a consideration of the legal system and its treatment of females gives us an understanding of how in practice women were treated within the community By combining these two very different types of evidence we can go at least some way towards an understanding of the woman’s place in Egyptian society cI am a free woman of Egypt Last will and testament of the Lady Naunakhte cIn addition a widow automatically inherited a percentage of her husband’s private property and indeed some husbands used their knowledge of the legal system to ensure that their partner would receive the bulk of the joint estate by legally transferring property to their wife before death somewhat as present day inheritance tax is avoided by those who resign themselves to giving away their goods during their lifetimeA devious means of preventing brothers or sisters from laying claim to matrimonial property involved the husband adopting his wife as his child; a fascinating Middle Kingdom legal document gives details of the adoption of the woman Nenufer by her husband Nebnufer ‘My husband made a writing for me and made me his child having no son or daughter apart from myself’ This declaration made in front of witnesses was legally binding and Nenufer was able to inherit all Nebnufer’s property as she was both his wife and his daughter cThere’s nothing better than a book; it’s like a boat sailing on the waterMiddle Kingdom Satire of the Trades сVery few of the privileged women who received a primary education were able to progress via formal apprenticeships into professional careers This is not necessarily because there was an official ban on women occupying influential posts and indeed no such veto has ever been recorded Instead it reflects the fact that a girl would be embarking on her nuptial and domestic responsibilities at precisely that age when her brother might expect to commence his training Without all the conveniences of modern life including efficient contraception the mistress of the house had than enough work to fill her day and she would certainly have been unable to take on the commitment of a full time career cit must be remembered that these tomb walls were painted to depict a way of life which was deliberately both idealized and stereotyped just as upper class Victorian and Edwardian morality maintained that a woman’s place was in the home conveniently ignoring the thousands of women who were forced to work for a living so the Egyptian scenes emphasize that paid work was uite properly the prerogative of men The scarcity of tomb scenes showing women supervising cooking perhaps gives us some indication of the lack of realism in these conventional images cThe highest ranking administrative title ever held by a woman belonged to the Old Kingdom Lady Nebet wife of Huy ‘Sole Royal Ornament’ and ‘Hereditary Princess Daughter of Geb Countess Daughter of Merhu She of the Curtain Judge and Vizier Daughter of Thoth Companion of the King of Lower Egypt Daughter of Horus’ The vizier held the most powerful and prestigious position in ancient Egypt; a position which was in theory at least non hereditary As the king’s right hand man he was freuently a member of the king’s immediate family and second only in importance to his monarch he acted as both senior civil servant and chief judge It would certainly have been very unexpected for a woman to hold such an important position of authority and circumstantial evidence indicates that although Nebet was clearly accorded the title of vizier the actual duties of the office were undertaken by her husband Huy No other woman was accorded the honour of this title until the 26th Dynasty сA wide variety of perfumed conditioning oils was also available for rubbing into the scalp after shampooing again with the aim of protecting the hair from the harsh climate During the New Kingdom this practice was extended to include the fashion rather bizarre to modern eyes of wearing perfumed lumps or cosmetic cones of fat balanced precariously on the head during social occasions These unusual party hats were made from tallow impregnated with myrrh and were designed to melt slowly as the festivities progressed releasing their perfume and allowing a thin and presumably refreshing trickle of wax to run down the hair and face As the heat of the party made the fat melt away it was topped up by a servant The cones appear to have been provided by the host for both his guests and the attendant servants and tomb scenes indicate that no dinner party would have been complete without them They are generally illustrated as white lumps with brown streaks running down the sides while brown stains shown on the shoulders of white clothing may well represent the greasy drips No actual examples of perfume cones have survived and it is now difficult to determine how literally these party scenes should be interpreted c Gosh I don't want to imagine this My eyesA well stocked cosmetic chest was a prized masculine possession at a time when a well made up face conveyed a message of high social status rather than effeminacy cI wish to paint my eyes so if I see you my eyes will sparkleNew Kingdom love poem c Uh huh So this is why those unfortunate vampires were sparkling all the wayAt first sight the Egyptians have provided us with a great deal of evidence for a study of their clothing We have a little written information a few surviving garments and numerous statues engravings and paintings which combine to provide an illustrated catalogue which may be used to chronicle changing styles throughout the dynasties However there are certain problems inherent in relying on this representational type of evidence By their very nature the illustrations tend to depict the upper echelons of society recorded under atypical conditions Just as today people prefer to be photographed in their best clothes we must assume that those affluent enough to be recorded for posterity would choose to display their most elaborate or formal costumes Clothing shown in depictions of the Afterlife may have had an additional ritual significance which is now lost to us Given the strict conventions of Egyptian art it is highly likely that the artist chose to depict traditional or stylized garments indicative of femininity rather than those actually worn and in many cases the subtle nuances of female dress may simply not have been recognized by the male artist who would have painted the majority of his portraits from memory or from a pattern book rather than from a live model In fact basing a discussion of garments solely on the types of evidence described above may well be analogous to basing a discussion of contemporary western styles on a collection of formal wedding portraits and ultra fashion haute couture photographs taken from the pages of Vogue Nevertheless and despite inaccuracies in depiction the clear message which reaches across the centuries from the tomb walls is the sheer delight with which both women and men pose to display their finery Certainly clothes were important to the Egyptians cWe still have no idea how the ancient clothmakers managed to fix their pleats so firmly into the material that some still survive today but it has been suggested that the long ribbed and grooved boards which have been recovered from several tombs may have played a part in the process Some form of starch may have been applied to stiffen the material and hold the pleats in place cBeware of loyal subjects who do not really exist For you will not be aware of their plotting Trust neither a brother nor a friend and have no intimate companions for they are worthlessExtract from the Instructions of King Amenemhat I сThe most famous God’s Wife of this time was Nitocris the daughter of the Late Period King Psammeticus I who held the position for over sixty years using her influence in the south to help her northern family By this time the nature of the position had obviously changed The God’s Wife was now a very powerful figure who dressed in the uraeus and other royal insignia was accorded regal titles and who even wrote her name in a royal cartouche With the help of trusted stewards and a large bureaucracy she controlled a political office of immense wealth and prestige including the ownership of over 2000 acres about 810 hectares of fertile land in both Upper Egypt and the Nile Delta Indeed the God’s Wife eventually took over all the duties of the male First Prophet of Amen becoming under her popular title of Divine Adoratrice one of the most influential women in the country Locally her influence exceeded that of the king in the north Ankhnesneferibre the daughter of Psammeticus II and niece of Nitocris was adopted as Nitocris’ successor eight years before her death; she was also created ‘First Prophet of Amen’ an honour not accorded to the other God’s ‘Wives’ Unfortunately Ankhnesneferibre proved to be the very last God’s Wife of Amen as the tradition was discontinued during the period of Persian rule which started during her ‘reign’ cThe Heiress Great in the Palace Fair in the Face Adorned with the Double Plumes Mistress of Happiness Endowed with Favours at hearing whose voice the King rejoices the Chief Wife of the King his beloved the Lady of the Two Lands Neferneferuaten Nefertiti may she live for ever and everTitles of ueen Nefertiti cMaat a broad concept which may be translated literally as justice or truth was the term used by the Egyptians when referring to the ideal state of the universe Maat had been established at the beginning of the world but was not permanent and could never be taken for granted; chaos or disorder was always lurking as an ever present threat to stability cHowever during the Amarna period there was a curious blending of styles with both Akhenaten and his ueen adopting long unisex pleated gowns If contemporary illustrations are to be believed Nefertiti occasionally wore hers completely unfastened to display all her womanly charms The fashionable ladies of the court completed their toilette by donning short masculine style wigs based on the curly haircuts worn by Nubian soldiers cMany of the statues of Akhenaten depict him as sporting the traditional accessories of kingship the crook and flail crown and beard but he is portrayed as a virtual hermaphrodite with a curiously feminine face well developed breasts and what appear to be good child bearing hips Why the king should have allowed himself to be immortalized in a way that seems perversely calculated to strike fear into the hearts of his people while inspiring his enemies is not clear It may be that this was actually how the poor man looked in which case he must have been suffering from some medical disorder although it is worth remembering that he did father six daughters with Nefertiti and she was by no means the only woman to bear his children It has been suggested that at least some of the sexually ambivalent statues actually represent Nefertiti in the role of the goddess Tefnut although this would not uite explain why she was carrying the royal regalia and indeed why there should be so many statues of the ueen and so few of the king It may even be that Akhenaten was attempting under the influence of his new religion to deliberately and symbolically depict in himself both masculine and feminine aspects of nature The mummified body of Akhenaten which could go a long way towards answering some of these fascinating uestions has never been properly identified and would appear to have been destroyed c the far dramatic suggestion has been made that Nefertiti may from this point onwards have become officially known as Akhenaten’s co ruler the enigmatic Prince Smenkhare cAll the items associated with childbirth developed a special ritual significance and became invested with particular magical powers so that even the birthing stool or birthing bricks became personified in the form of the goddess Meskhenet an idiosyncratic looking lady occasionally illustrated as a tile or brick with a human head but often shown as a woman sporting a cow’s uterus as her divine headgear c That's one fashionable lady‘I will not let you enter through me’ says the jamb of the door ‘unless you tell me my name’‘Plumb bob in the Place of Truth is your name’Extract from the New Kingdom Book of the Dead c The stela of the Lady TaimhotepOh my brother my husband My friend and high priest Do not weary of drink and of food of drinking deep and loving The west is a land of sleep where darkness weighs on the dwelling place Those who live there sleep as mummies They do not wake to see their brothers and cannot see their fathers or mothers Their hearts forget their wives and children Turn my face to the north wind at the edge of the water Perhaps then my heart will be cooled in its grief c