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Here is a fresh provocative look at how a recognizable Europe came into being in the first millennium AD With sharp analytic insight Peter Heather explores the dynamics of migration and social and economic interaction that changed two vastly different worlds the undeveloped barbarian world and the sophisticated Roman Empire into remarkably similar societies and statesThe book's vivid narrative begins at the time of Christ when the Mediterranean circle newly united under the Romans hosted a politically sophisticated economically advanced and culturally developed civilization one with philosophy banking professional armies literature stunning. Peter Heather's book is a big ambitious account of the history of first millennium EuropeThe key he argues to explaining the cultural and linguistic map of Europe today is the social and economic development of Europe in the iron age and the processes of migration that took place osmois like in response to the uneven pattern of development which saw wealth and power concentrated around the Mediterranean seaMore particularly he wants to define a middle ground between an older view of complete peoples moving from A to Z like billiard balls unchanging as they richotte around the geography of Europe and the view that developed particularly in the study of prehistory that there were never any migrations and change has to be understood as a process of evolution among peoples who were always there In stead he supports a snowball pattern of migrations during the first millennium there were movements but they were messy accumulating or loosing sub groups as they moved and changed by their interactions with others Migration and development are parallel processes that can not be separated Complicated by external and internal pressures which remind him of mass population movements from Rwanda and Kossovo in the near pastHeather's third point is what he calls 'Newton's third law of empires' that empire is ultimately a self destructive endeavour Imperial assertion maintenance or if you like self defence forces those that the Empire is asserting itself against to organise to such a degree that they can eventually defeat that empire and indeed the empire may well in pursuit of it's own self interest hasten that processFor Heather as in Barry Cunliffe's Greeks Romans Barbarians borders and frontiers are not absolute boundaries but zones in which interactions are controlled And needs on the one side for labour slaves and soldiers food or luxury goods amber furs caused or enabled the development of client states on the other side of the borderThe first and last chapters concentrate on the theory while those in between advance chronologically from Rome and it's fall through to rise of the Slavs the arrival of the Vikings the Carolingians and the Ottonians Drawing nicely on the archaeology DNA evidence and modern migration studies as well as written sources as it goes In places he relies on the close reading of a source Ammianus Marcellinus or Procopius stressing at times the peculiar significance of a plural or a phrase at others while making use of the archaeology he points out that the dating has been significantly reinterpreted or cannot be tied down precisely enough to allow a full understanding the emergence of Slavic peoples is particularly obscure This book was published just a few years after Francis Pryor's Britain AD which takes entirely the opposite view of the Anglo Saxon migration to Britain than Heather that it did not occur Pryor stresses agricultural continuity Heather tells us that Roman era villa estates were broken up and that this is a clue that the migration was fairly large large enough anyway that the only way to reward all the key migrants involved in the take over was by breaking up villa estates Assuming that both Heather and Pryor are serious scholars with a close acuaintance with the evidence indeed with the

review Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe

Empires and Barbarians The Fall of Rome and the Birth of EuropeArchitecture even garbage collection The rest of Europe meanwhile was home to subsistence farmers living in small groups dominated largely by Germanic speakers Although having some iron tools and weapons these mostly illiterate peoples worked mainly in wood and never built in stone The farther east one went the simpler it became fewer iron tools and ever less productive economies And yet ten centuries later from the Atlantic to the Urals the European world had turned Slavic speakers had largely superseded Germanic speakers in central and Eastern Europe literacy was growing Christianity had spread and most fundamentally Mediterranean supremac. Peter Heather's book on the period from the decline of the Western Roman empire to the end of the first millennium is both revolutionary and conservative in its outlook largely because he pushes to restore albeit with far finer resolution and detail the migration to our ideas of the 'Dark Ages' While other reviewers found his book repetitive I found his brief reviews of both his complex theory and the available evidence to be refreshing and useful; by the latter part of the book when I felt reasonably immersed in his evidence I'd skip the synopsis This is not a deeply academic book in the sense of being difficult and is virtually jargon free a uniue achievement in the field I write historical fiction for a living and I read history every day Books like this and their extensive bibliographies of primary source evidence and archaeological evidence are the very bedrock of good history and historical fiction at least to me Thanks Prof Heather

Peter Heather Ä 5 Free download

Free download Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe è PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ↠ Here is a fresh provocative look at how a recognizable Europe came into being in the first millennium AD With sharp analytic insight Peter Heather explores Y was broken The emergence of larger and stronger states in the north and east had by the year 1000 brought patterns of human organization into much greater homogeneity across the continent Barbarian Europe was barbarian no longerBringing the whole of first millennium European history together for the first time and challenging current arguments that migration played but a tiny role in this unfolding narrative Empires and Barbarians views the destruction of the ancient world order in the light of modern migration and globalization patterns The result is a compelling nuanced and integrated view of how the foundations of modern Europe were lai. This is a really long book that I read in 10 15 page snippets over a few months so a lot is mighty hazy to me right now There is a lot of good info in it and it has an interesting argument It's main focus is on the role of migration in European history in the first millennium AD Heather notes that scholars once at migration as playing a key factor in the fall of Rome with singular tribalethnic units entering into the Empire That was discredited after WWII with Hitler's Aryan beliefs discrediting much of that foundation Groups weren't singular Ethnic groups were malleable and flexible and shouldn't be read back as a specific distinct entity for all eternity With those changes migration fell from favor Scholars instead focused on the flexibility of identity and ethnicity as a social construct and really minimized the role of migrationHeather argues for a revised view of migration's importance Oh a lot of the critiue is correct he agrees Units aren't singular and eternal The old school oversimplified But the new school oversimplifies too he contends Identity isn't just a social construct or who'd ever volunteer to be identified as a slave or underling And there is enough movement to provide evidence for migrationSo what happened and why Heather tries to look at modern migration most notably the South African Voortrek by Boers in the 1830s as a reason to understand what happened then Leaders of bands had followers if he could provide for them and if he could he'd get followers That led to migration being of a group dynamic than it often is in the 21st century Some warriors may lead with raids but then others come Economic disparity plays a role as people go to places with wealth Outside factors like the appearance of the Huns also play a role in making people want to leave Oh and factors like knowledge play a role You go to places you know something aboutHeather goes through all sorts of migrations one at a time like this the late Roman migrations post Roman ones the Vikings the rise of Serbs and finally the Magyars He notes the Huns caused all sorts of secondary migration effects as groups scattered away but when the Magyars came everyone stayed Heather says this is a sign of how Europe had changed There was wealth in the North now with better plows and trade routes about slaves and furs to the Muslims and to the Byzantines and to Rome's successor states That wealth helped lead to state formation and a fixed sense of rootedness So that's why they didn't leave when the Magyars came And since then people have largely stayed in place as groupsThe book is interesting but it's a little too long and sprawling A lot of the early chapters in particular just replicate points he'd previously made in his book on the fall of the Roman Empire But in general it's a very fine effort