The Last Generation How Nature Will Take Her Revenge for Climate Change Free download ↠ PDF eBook or Kindle ePUB free

Read The Last Generation How Nature Will Take Her Revenge for Climate Change

The Last Generation How Nature Will Take Her Revenge for Climate Change Free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free à Fred Pearce has been writing about climate change for eighteen years and the he learns the worse things look Where once scientists were conceF the ocean conveyor and a rare molecule that runs virtually the entire cleanup system for the planet Above all the scientists told him what they're now learning about the speed and violence of past natural climate change and what it portends for our future With Speed and Violence is the most up to date and readable book yet about the growing evidence for global warming and the large climatic effects it may unleas. This book is over ten years old so I read it primarily for concepts and not for the obviously out of date figuresI think it’s worth pointing out just as this book does that as early as 1896 the scientist Svante Arrhenius who later won the Nobel Prize began thinking about and then calculating how much rising carbon dioxide levels would lead to rising global temperatures This is not a new concern and we’ve had over a century of warningSecond this book did an excellent job of explaining why the idea that increased carbon dioxide levels will simply encourage plants to grow uickly thus soaking up the excess carbon dioxide is flawed This is actually a common theme here in the US and we are in desperate need of an analysis that can put paid to this idea So here goes first it’s true that extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will encourage photosynthesis to speed up so plants will indeed grow faster and absorb carbon dioxide However we are also outpacing the plants and also seem to have the inability to cope with the existence of large tracts of forested land The same carbon dioxide and any other carbon dioxide we add to it is simultaneously warming the climate That warming accelerates the processes that break down plant material and release carbon dioxide back into the air In addition trees themselves like all photosynthesizing organisms still respire and release their own carbon dioxide at least at night Further the increased warming can encourage droughts in areas with large amounts of plant life and the droughts can often lead to dead plants which can then fuel large wildfires which release huge uantities of carbon dioxide Moving on planting trees in the Arctic in an attempt to compensate for some of the forested land that has been destroyed may actually make things worse despite the fact that the trees absorb carbon dioxide This is because forested areas have a much lower albedo than the retreating ice and thus absorb energy instead of reflecting it away We need to be strategic about planting trees and also pay attention to what ecosystems can support them Third this book establishes that we can put paid to the idea that climate modeling systems are or less guesswork that don’t actually reflect reality and only yield results that scientists who “believe in” climate change agree with“The Atlantic is also generating hurricanes in places where they have never been seen before In March 2004 the first known hurricane in the South Atlantic formed striking southern Brazil That the hurricane later named Catarina even formed was startling enough What caused the greatest shock was that it developed very close to a zone of ocean pinpointed a few years before by Britain’s Hadley Centre modelers as a likely new focus for hurricane formation in a warmer greenhouse world But they had predicted that the waters there wouldn’t be up to the task until 2070” Page 214There is also independent evidence based on real life historical records not just computer based models to go by“The French mathematician Pascal Yioucollected than 600 years’ worth of parish records showing when the Pinot Noir grape harvest began in the Burgundy vineyards of eastern France There is a clear relationship between summer temperatures and the start of the harvest so he extrapolated backward to produce a temperature graph from the present to 1370 The results showed that temperatures as high as those typical in the 1990s were unusual but had happened several times before However Yiou said “the summer of 2003 appears to have been extraordinary uniue” Temperatures in Burgundy that year were almost 11 degrees F above the long term average And if Yiou’s formula was accurate the highest previous temperature had been just 7 degrees above the average That happened in 1525 in a warm interlude during the little ice age” Page 202It is true that factors related to Earth’s movement through space influence changes in climate but they can exacerbate already existing climatic trends and can easily push an already teetering system over the edge very uickly and things can change “with speed and violence”It is also true that Earth has a “thermostat” Basically carbon dioxide in the air can be removed by being dissolved in rain to form dilute carbonic acid The acid erodes rocks on the ground which are made primarily of calcium silicate and thus produces calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate ultimately ends up as sediments on the ocean floor But the amount of rain depends on the temperature of the planet Erosion rates rise with temperature but faster erosion removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere removes a greenhouse gas and allows the planet to cool again This amounts to a negative geological feedback system but because it operates on a geological time scale it’s not going to save usI was fascinated by the discussion of “the chimney” a hydrological phenomenon in the Greenland Sea“Only a handful of people have ever seen it It is a giant whirlpool in the ocean 6 miles in diameter constantly circling counterclockwise and siphoning water from the surface to the seabed 2 miles below That water will not return to the surface for a thousand years The chimney once one of a family pursues its lonely task in the middle of one of the coldest and most remote seas on Earth And its swirling waters may be the switch that can turn the heat engine of the world’s climate system on and off”The book continues“The existence of a series of these chimneys was discovered by a second British adventurer Cambridge ocean physicist Peter WadhamsHe concluded that they were the final destination for the most northerly flow of the Gulf Stream The waters of this great ocean current which drives north through the tropical Atlantic bringing warmth to Europe are chilled by the Arctic winds in the Greenland Sea and start to freeze around the Odden tongue The water that is left becomes ever denser and heavier until it is entrained by the chimneys and plunges to the ocean floorBut they are in danger“But even as he gazed on these dynamos of ocean circulation Wadhams knew they were in trouble”In 1997 the last year the Odden ice tongue formed we found four chimneys in a single season and calculate there could have been as many as twelve” says Wadhams Since then they have been disappearing one by one – except for one particularly vigorous specimen”“The great chimney had in May 2003 one dying companion 40 miles to the northwest But that chimney no longer reached the surface and was he says almost certainly in its death throes That left just one remaining chimney in the Greenland Sea”I wonder if the location of the chimneys and ocean circulation patterns will simply change along with the climate or if things will eventually stop altogether which would cause a stratified ocean Some scientists believe that one of the causes of the Permian mass extinction was a shutdown of oceanic circulation patterns and the shift to a stratified ocean A stratified ocean would not be able to sustain the ecosystems most life depends on and a massive die off would be a logical conseuence If these scientists are correct and if climate change does cause the ocean to stratify you can pretty much kiss the world as we know it goodbye because somewhere between 90 95% of all species on Earth died in the Permian mass extinctionI also found the discussion of the and the weather patterns it spawns to be interesting According to some calculations its trees collectively release six trillion tons of water a year and not all of that stays in the basin Some of it goes to the Andes and some of it also waters the Argentine pampas In fact it’s been estimated that half of Argentina’s rain comes from evaporation from the forests of the And some of the water travels even further – east towards South Africa or north toward the Caribbean All of this water also carries a great deal of energy because a tremendous amount of solar energy is reuired to evaporate it from the forest canopy In fact it takes so much energy that forests often stay cooler than nearby plains even at the same altitude Not only that but when the evaporated water condenses to form new clouds that energy is released into the air This energy then powers weather systems and high level winds far into the Northern Hemisphere Several climatologists have calculated that the whole process provides the energy that drives winter storms across the North Atlantic and into Europe And if the rainforest goes so will the vast levels of transpiration that fuel this massive hydrological engineThe loss of the rainforest would have even further ripple effects This is because unbelievable as it might seem conditions in the Sahara affect the rainforest This is possible because the physical distance isn’t as great as it might seem; the Atlantic is narrow near the euator and so the two ecosystems are closer to one another than London and New York Their relationship stems from the fact that the Sahara contains some of the dustiest areas on Earth with satellite images showing year round dust storms powerful enough to inject large amounts of dust into the atmosphere While some of this dust stays in the area large uantities of it are carried across the Atlantic by prevailing winds The red dust clouds can reach almost two miles high by the time they approach the Americas causing Miami’s spectacular sunrises before falling to earth in the rain that waters the Caribbean and the The Sahara dust has some surprising effects in the Americas; according to hurricane forecasters in Florida dry dusty years in the Sahara correspond to milder hurricane seasons on the other side of the Atlantic This is likely because dust in the air can interrupt the uptake of warm moist air reuired to fuel hurricanes Not only that but the Saharan dust storms transfer large amounts of minerals and organic material that help fertilize soil in the Americas and that includes the soils of the The wetter the Sahara the fewer the dust storms and the lower the levels of fertilization And the severe the hurricane seasonThe book also pointed out something I hadn’t really thought of before A warming troposphere means a cooling stratosphere and now I’m wondering how that might affect both the stratosphere and the climateThere are two things about books on this topic that I am beginning to find uite annoying The first is the idea that somehow developing countries had nothing to do with creating this mess and shouldn’t have to share the burden Except that they did and should Massive deforestation caused by slash and burn agricultural techniues and the production of charcoal the soot released by millions of cooking stoves and the pollution over India and China that is visible from space are just a few examples of how the developing world is contributing to the problem That and the fact that most of the increase in world population is coming from the developing world Second most of the “wedge” solutions being proposed to climate change also have severe environmental impacts in their own right and these are not being addressed For example the production of photovoltaic cells for the solar panels – and one proposal calls for covering an area of land the size of New Jersey with solar panels – is very bad for the environment Not to mention the ecosystems that would have to be destroyed to install those panels unless they are placed on previously existing buildings Planting an area the size of India with new forests sounds great except that some places aren’t ecologically euipped to handle trees and the parts that are especially good at it are also considered desirable for agriculture why do you think they were deforested in the first place Also what kind of trees and where Doubling nuclear power plant capacity – sure it’s emissions free but where do you put the waste where it won’t harm the rest of the environment Climate change isn’t the only environmental issue facing us and pretending otherwise is extremely dangerous I think it’s about time to recognize this planet actually has a carrying capacity and there is only so much life it can support And that means it’s time for a completely new system of accounting What price should be attached to an ecologically healthy planet What value should be attached to the continued existence of thousands of species of wild plants and animals – some of which have gone extinct by the time the scientific papers naming and describing them are published What’s the cost benefit analysis when it comes to a world solely populated by us and by those few species we find economically useful as opposed to a world filled with species that may exist simply for their own sake And in this system of accounting any attempt to cook the books could have catastrophic conseuences

review É PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Ð Fred Pearce

Beyond which there is no redemptionAs Pearce began working on this book normally cautious scientists beat a path to his door to tell him about their fears and their latest findings With Speed and Violence tells the stories of these scientists and their work from the implications of melting permafrost in Siberia and the huge river systems of meltwater beneath the icecaps of Greenland and Antarctica to the effects o. 6618 the linked article reminded of Pearce's reporting Fly finding at Greenland Ice SheethttpswwwsciencedailycomreleasesVery informative In the years since reading it I have seen an increasing number of scientific articles verifying Pearce's research and predictions

Fred Pearce Ð 5 Read

The Last Generation How Nature Will Take Her Revenge for Climate ChangeFred Pearce has been writing about climate change for eighteen years and the he learns the worse things look Where once scientists were concerned about gradual climate change now and of them fear we will soon be dealing with abrupt change resulting from triggering hidden tipping points Even President Bush's top climate modeler Jim Hansen warned in 2005 that we are on the precipice of climate system tipping points. I held off reviewing With Speed and Violence until I had finished Six Degrees I believed that both told different sides of the climate issue and I was correct Speed and violence discusses tipping points Tipping points are events that once started will cause a cascade of other events that are related Think of a tipping point as a dense fog on a highway Suddenly you are immersed in a pea soup and can't see If you hit your breaks the guy behind you hits your rear so you drive on until you run into some one else rear end Now you also get rear ended and so on Tipping points work like that One climate point starts to cascade or stop and other tipping points kick in leading to an avalanche of climatic change These points are many methane clathrates the shutting down of the Atlantic Conveyor El Nino and La Nina events drought in the Basin etc Each tipping point is scary enough but it's affect on other tipping points drives the planet into uncontrollable warming At this point Six Degrees takes over Six Degrees talks about what the world looks like at 0ne through six degrees of warming A note here Six Degrees was written in 2007 In 2016 the planet according to the British Metrological Service and The National Snow And Ice Data Center earth has already warmed 16 C since 1990 We only have4 C before we cross the 2 degrees C threshold that Kyoto and Paris have tried to get us to stop at Two degrees life is hard but mostly around the world uite livable AS we go past two degrees the world becomes and inhospitable Understanding what tipping points we have crossed bleached coral stronger El Nino and La Nina ocean PH dropping by1 from 82 to 81 and what tipping points are yet to be crossed is the NUMBER ONE ISSUE WE FACE as Hominids To survive as Hominids we need to cut back on our carbon usage All of us today will most likely see two degrees It will be hit sometime between 2020 and 2025 See Met estimates of warming Will I see three degrees probably as 2030 to 2040 is when we cross that threshold Will some remnant of humanity survive a six degree warmer world Yes Will it be my Avigale I don't know I want to leave her a world that is livable so it's time for every one to wake up The coffee is already burned