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El último MesíasS over evolved and over lived its own biological necessities through its over sized superfluous brainTragic lyricism and sublimation result Something suspicious. Suffering is a part of the human experience and we all have our ways of dealing with suffering as well as how to deal with the constant pain that comes with existing in the normal world There are people out there who've decided to truck through life even through its pains and sufferings but then there's the people who choose to succumb to despair and then there's the people who want to spread the misery around to everyone else not allowing it to be enough for them themselves to be nihilistic but have to have everybody else around them to be as miserable and nihilistic as they are Zapffe is much like 'new atheist' gurus Hitchens and Dawkins not particularly as arrogant as the two but rather in his attempt to spread his own miserable existence to everybody else around them in an almost evangelical zeal He also apes off of Nietzsche without seeming to comprehend Nietzsche's end goal even as detestable as it is Zapffe does acknowledge Nietzsche's influence but decides to abandon Nietzsche's idealism in favor of advocating for mankind's desolation in fact I even joked on another review of this that him and Rust Cohle from True Detective should hang out in fact I wouldn't be surprised if Nic Pizzolatto used this essay as an influence for True Detective as it influenced horror author or as I like to dub him horror's Nietzsche Thomas Ligotti If there is one thing the two get right from Nietzsche it is how to figurative punch you in the stomach from the sheer power of their arguments Nihilism is persuasive as this essay shows and it can be hard to counter But at the end of the day the battle between hope and despair in the human condition relies on a choice the choice to embrace hope or to embrace despair As for the majority of the human race I think that we've managed to see that there is hope love and beauty to be found from this world and that often tanks baseless nihilism and despair Monty Python's Eric Idle couldn't have had it any betterhttpswwwyoutubecomwatchvSJUhl

Peter Wessel Zapffe ó 5 Read

The supreme text of Antinatalist despair Norwegian philosopher Peter Zapffe re imagines the human condition as a continuing state in which the human organism ha. The Last Messiah is an essay that encapsulates Zapffe’s view on the human condition and stands out as an important work in the sphere of philosophical pessimism The views expressed can be classed as a kind of evolutionary existentialism in that Zapffe propounds a view on the nature of human existence that incorporates an evolutionary perspectiveFor Camus human life is comparable to this absurd activity in that our condition and the world do not meet our desires we want meaning a fundamental reason for our existence but we are unable to find such a meaning or purpose This is a point that Zapffe also underscores The boulder is the meaning we try to construct be it scientific metaphysical or religious but they inevitably fail to meet our need for meaning according to Camus anyway and this causes us to construct another meaning with the process repeating itself like in the case of SisyphusMan is a tragic animal Not because of his smallness but because he is too well endowed Man has longings and spiritual demands that reality cannot fulfill We have expectations of a just and moral world Man reuires meaning in a meaningless world While the argument could be made that Zapffe is perhaps unduly pessimistic in his outlook I do think he delivers a keen insight into the human condition by focusing on the evolutionary perspective It seems clear that our biological evolutionary imperatives do not always closely align with human well being and at least on some accounts such imperatives seem diametrically opposed to our happiness For example in Buddhism craving is cast as the root of human suffering yet craving serves a crucial biological and evolutionary function; it makes us constantly feel unsatisfied with what is projecting satisfaction on what could be causing us to constantly strive but never gaining lasting satisfaction only temporary satisfaction But this treadmill of desire is what keeps us motivated to survive and reproduceZapffe refers to the human organism as a “biological paradox” but actually I think while his analysis of the human condition may hold true it is not so hard to see why the human intellect is as it is even if it leads to the uniue human experience of existential angst Evolutionary trade offs are commonplace There are countless examples of where an advantageous change in one trait leads to a disadvantageous change in another trait In the case of humans we can easily see that our degree of intellect as advantageous in a strictly biological context but at the same time we can say that we have too much intellect and awareness that it makes us prone to a wide spectrum of negative states from rumination to horrific despairHowever in evolutionary terms we might posit that the benefits of our highly or overly evolved intellect outweigh the downsides even if experientially for the individual those downsides entail existential panic and an indefatigable kind of discomfort Zapffe notes however that most people avoid the real horrors of seeing the human predicament clearly with “pure example of life panic being presumably rare” This is because “the protective mechanisms are refined and automatic and to some extent unremitting” Evolution is not a perfect system of design so even if the protective mechanisms don’t successfully work for all individuals or don’t work all the time with life panic sometimes rising to the surface our overly evolved intellect is nevertheless beneficial overall within a strictly evolutionary framework In one part of the essay Zapffe postulates four methods humans have used for limiting the contents of their consciousness1 Isolationwhich involves “a fully arbitrary dismissal from consciousness of all disturbing and destructive thought and feeling” It is an avoidance of thinking about the human condition and the terrible truths that Zapffe believes this entails He also describes the techniue of isolation by uoting a certain ‘Engstrom’ whose identity remains uncertain “One should not think it is just confusing”2 Anchoringwhich involves the “fixation of points within or construction of walls around the liuid fray of consciousness” This reuires that we consistently focus our attention on a value or ideal the examples Zapffe gives include “God the Church the State morality fate the laws of life the people the future”3 Distraction which is when “one limits attention to the critical bounds by constantly enthralling it with impressions” – this prevents the mind from examining itself and becoming aware of the tragedy of human existence It is easy to think of how we in modern times incessantly distract ourselves with external stimulation; some examples Zapffe gives include entertainment sport and radio4 Sublimation which Zapffe calls “a matter of transformation rather than repression” It involves turning “the very pain of living” into “valuable experiences” He continues “Positive impulses engage the evil and put it to their own ends fastening onto its pictorial dramatic heroic lyric or even comic aspects” He also notes that the essay The Last Messiah itself is an attempt at such sublimation For Zapffe sublimation is “the rarest of protective mechanisms” Most people can limit the contents of their consciousness using the previous three mechanisms staving off existential angst and world weariness But when these forms of repression fail and the tragic cannot be ignored sublimation offers a remedy a way of turning the unignorable “pain of living” into creative positive aesthetically valuable works One potential criticism I would level against Zapffe’s essay is that the mind may already naturally repress consciousness without any artificial methods of repression in place This is known as the ‘reducing valve theory’ of the mind expounded by philosophers such as Henri Bergson and CD Broad and then later popularised by Aldous Huxley This theory also appears to be with modern research on human consciousness For example research has demonstrated that the human brain has evolved a large scale network called the default mode network DMN that represses consciousness to limit the amount of information reaching conscious awareness Thus the repression of consciousness seems to be biological and inbuilt and not just artificial as Zapffe argues

Free read El último Mesías

Free download El último Mesías æ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Ö The supreme text of Antinatalist despair Norwegian philosopher Peter Zapffe re imagines the human condition as a continuing state in which the human organism has over evolved and over lived its own biological necessities through its over sized superLy Buddhist here as well 4 ignoble truthsFans of Nietzsche and EM Cioran will devour this text greedily A short essay but hits hard leaving a lasting impactEnjo. Perfect rating for the writing for the ideas perspective for the shock value everything about this is masterful Zapffe makes the tragic than tangible and than relatable in this short piece Despite its brevity it reuires time to sit and think and still reuires at it's close Incredible