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Puede decirse ue Ideología y aparatos ideológicos del Estadoes ya un clásico en la bibliografía moderna sobre el tema de las ideologías Este texto se enmarca en la concepción althusseriana según la cual toda práctica social se desenvuelve en un medio. I shall therefore say that where only a single subject such and such an individual is concerned the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses by Louis Althusser is my first foray into Marxism and I gotta say I enjoyed myself I don’t pretend to be an expert on economic systems nor can I claim that socialism is superior or inferior to other systems But what I like is how complete Marxism seems as a world view; almost all of human culture and civilization can be viewed under its lens Louis Althusser an important Marxist of the last century wrote this work to define and describe what he called ‘Ideological State Apparatuses’ or ISA These are distinct from traditional State Apparatuses such as government the police and the army which he redefined as Repressive State Apparatuses RSA The difference being that where RSAs rule through violence ISAs rule through ideology The institutions of the latter are church school family science law and most surprisingly for me art Let’s run through the argumentIf a society can exist because of its economy or ‘modes of production’ then it needs to reproduce those modes to continue to survive To accomplish this the State constructs apparatuses to perpetuate the modes of production irrespective of who’s in charge The eternal thing is the State; humans come and go An example is the concept of wages workers receive currency for their work so they may eat and reproduce workers The created apparatuses can be divided into two camps infrastructure and superstructure where the former is the operating economy ex capitalism and the latter are the ISAs and RSAs Both of these systems are the source of State Power Now the reason State superstructure needs both an RSA and ISA is because the State cannot rule on force or ideology alone—both are needed and preferably married RSAs are part of the public sphere falsely perceived to be ‘accountable’ and the ISAs are part of the private one falsely perceived to be ‘autonomous’ While it’s true ISAs can challenge RSAs they for the most part are in alliance as the ISA receives support and shielding from the RSA while the RSA receives legitimization from the ISA It’s worth noting that while the Church was classically the most powerful ISA today it is AcadamiaIn short Ideological State Institutions manufacture and institutionalize ideologies necessary for the State to operate Scary stuff Thus Althusser argues that ideology is both imaginary and unconscious it does not reflect reality and is not actively chosen by us This is the key point as ideology is traditionally portrayed as a world view that people actively choose themselves But instead what’s happening is that people who are forced to labor in alienated conditions accommodate their surroundings with ideological justification ex individualism in a capitalism society honor is a warrior society etc In turn the ISA’s take hold and propound these ideologies so the gears can keep turning Now when Althusser called ideologies imaginary he meant that they do not accurately reflect a person’s relationship with their environment We see ourselves as autonomous and empowered individuals when they are in fact oppressed subjects Ironically he also argues that ideology is fundamentally material in that it manifests in ritualscustomroutineeveryday action So we don’t just think these fictions we give them substance by playing them out This is a self reinforcing system that is difficult to break and harder to perceiveOne effect produced by all these is the transformation of all individuals into State subjects But because we are born into this system at and in many ways before birth all individuals are always already subjects Althusser even claims that those in charge are subjects to the same State Apparatuses which make them ‘The Subject’ to which the rest of us are subject It gets even crazier when we apply these terms to other power dynamics for example in Christian religion all Christians are subjects to God who is in this system the Subject Suggesting God is ultimately subordinate to the theological apparatus he created You may ask why anyone would join this system even unconsciously but the important thing is that the State Apparatus allows people to self dictate within the system In other words it’s a structure that people can ‘work by themselves’ hence it is self reproducing The illusion of freedom combined with stability is tempting enough even when it entails class oppressionOf course the classic Marxist conclusion to all this is that the proletariat must overthrows these systems both State power and the State Apparatuses At this point though Althusser only briefly and mechanically prescribed this antidote I smelled a hint of fear in his writing He mentions how Lenin when leading his revolution could dismantle both the State power and RSAs but tormented over the ISAs which are ingrained in both the culture and people’s psyches It’s because society doesn’t exist merely in institutions but in people’s history in their imaginations and in their hearts Old roots run deep Anyways while all this was interesting enough the ramification in art is what interests me most How art has embedded in it cultural axioms that I should be aware of both as clichés but also as potentially oppressive elements Sexism racism class insensitivity; you know the drill Not completely unknown to me but seeing it here in this Marxist framework was important I shall do my part to overthrow the capitalist oppressors one book review at a time

Summary Idéologie et appareils idéologiques d'État (Notes pour une recherche)

Idéologie et appareils idéologiques d'État Notes pour une rechercheDesenvuelve incluso en el centro mismo de la polémica en torno a la oposición ciencia vs ideología y en la noción de corte epistemológico instancias ambas ue han enfrentado a Althusser con una crítica ue no por profunda y decidida deja de ser iluminado. Some of my favorite passages“Althusser here explains in systematic fashion his conception of historical materialism the conditions for the reproduction of capitalist society and the revolutionary struggle that seeks to put an end to it His propositions about ideology and the ‘apparatuses’ put back in the overall framework of his project and the context of his political thought reveal their object and presuppositions”“It confronts us with a uestion that is today less than ever possible to dismiss as obsolete under what conditions in a society that proclaims its devotion to the ideals of freedom and euality is the domination of some people over others endlessly reproduced”“it calls for a reading at several levels it is a political text that bears witness to its period; an introduction to the Althusserian categories for the analysis of capitalism; and a novel theory of the ‘Ideological State Apparatuses’ and ideological ‘interpellation’“founded on the idea of a march towards socialism by way of a gradual legal process of public appropriation of the major means of production”“the first chapter introduces Althusser’s thesis about philosophy as a form that presupposes social conflict and scientific work and about the history of philosophy as a seuence of conjunctures in which novelty arises at the conjunction of decisive ‘political economic and scientific’ ‘events’ “Every ‘social formation’ is characterized by a ‘dominant mode of production’” “In the model as a whole the base not the superstructure Law State Ideologies is ‘determinant in the last instance’”“it tends to show the constant conditions in which variation occurs and eventually puts an end to those constant conditions”“single theory but a theory with double entries reproduction and revolution”“power is exercised by the dominant class The struggle of the dominated class has to be sure an impact on society Only the dominant class however exercises ‘power’ Power the ‘excess’ of this class’s force over that of the dominated class ‘class domination does indeed find itself sanctioned in and by the state in that only the Force of the dominant class enters into it and is recognized there What is this Force is the sole “motor” of the state the only energy to be transformed into power right laws and norms in the state’ Law far from countering domination is simply a moment of domination”Revolution consists of a practical common ‘appropriation’ by freely associated men and women “interpretations of society as penetrated or saturated by class relations and subject to a class power that is exercised through the whole set of institutions”“civil society also provides the terrain on which the progressive struggle of ascendant class the proletariat is played out and therefore the terrain on which is played out the revolutionary process itself” “ensemble of institutions as elements of the state machinery thanks to which the bourgeoisie secures its domination”“a war for the subjection of one class to another by way of a mobilization of commodity relations and law which ‘sanctions’ these relations”“ideology does not have ‘an ideal idea dependent or spiritual existence but a material one’ for ‘an ideology always exists in an apparatus’ and Ideological State Apparatuses are the site of a ‘realization’ of ideology” “‘every ideology has the function which defines it of “constituting” concrete individuals as subjects’”interpellation of “the free” is actually the opposite “a lure an injunction to conform to the social order based on commodity exchange to the legal forms that rule it the representations that justify it and the practices that they call for”“imperative to show clearly what sort of system ensures the reproduction of the conditions of capitalist production production being nothing but a means to the end of capitalist exploitation since under the capitalist regime the production of consumer goods obeys the law of profit alone and thus the law of exploitation”“the time is ripe because we need to take stock of things and are capable of taking stock of things” failures at a certain point teach than a victory said Lenin “since its conseuences force us to go to the bottom of things”“Let there be no mistake we need only become aware of the unprecedented crisis into which imperialism beleaguered by its contradictions and its victims and assailed by the people has now plunged in order to conclude that it will not survive it”“someone who confronted with a painful occurrence ‘takes things philosophically’ is someone who takes a step back gets the better of her immediate reaction and conducts herself in a rational way she understands the event affecting her and acknowledges its necessity”“it is not a good method to chop things in half and keep only what suits us We have to take every aspect of the popular conception of philosophy into account”“the philosopher ‘circulates’ in a ‘world different’ from that of spontaneous popular consciousness” Every concrete social formation is based on a dominant mode of production The immediate implication is that in every social formation there exists than one mode of production at least two and often many In the base which in the last instance determines everything that happens in the superstructure in the base that is in the unity productive forcesrelations of production the relations of production are determinant on the basis of the existing productive forces and within the material limits they setA mode of production is as its name indicates a way or manner a mode of producing Of producing what The material goods indispensable to the material existence of the men women and children living in a given social formationA way of tackling nature in order to obtain goods is not a state of mind a behavioral style or a mood It is a set of labour processes that together form a system constituting the production process of a particular mode of productionTechnical level of agents of a labor process is always determined by the nature of the instruments of labor and generally by the the existing means of production Some argue “We have understood what a mode of production is productive forces set in motion in certain labour processes by agents with special skills” From the foregoing a good many ‘experts’ will conclude 1 that Marx invented nothing new since all this is blindingly obvious wo suspecting that it has only been blindingly obvious since Marx; and above all 2 that we have to do in all this with nothing than technology pure and simple material technology tools machines technical training of the workforce and technical organization of the labour process The experts will feel reassured and their ‘spontaneous’ tendency which is technicist or technocratic will be reinforcedIn fact we must suarely rebut them The productive forces do not suffice to account for a mode of production since they are just one if its elements The other is represented by the relations of productionMarx effectively shows in Capital that the mobilization of the productive forces means of production labour power is incomprehensible unless we understand that it takes place under the aegis of definite relations of production which play the determinant role in the unity productive forcesrelations of production

Louis Althusser ☆ 2 Summary

Read & download æ Idéologie et appareils idéologiques d'État (Notes pour une recherche) Ê PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ☆ Puede decirse ue Ideología y aparatos ideológicos del Estadoes ya un clásico en la bibliografía moIdeológico y por otra parte la ideología cumple la función general de cohesión del todo social Posiciones éstas ue comparte con otros pensadores como Nicos Pualantzas en gran parte de su obra al menos Daniel Vidal y otros El contenido de este ensayo se. Finally published in english in January 2014 I was looking forward to reading the book where Althusser's famous and masterful ISA essay was culled from While there is much to admire in this book it is also troubled by Althusser's inability to break completely PCF orthodoxy particularly in the wake of May 1968 which is why the book is filled with tangents in which he upholds economism despite also attacking other aspects of economism very contradictory so as to criticize his former students The book is simultaneously brilliant and erroneous