1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed characters Û eBook PDF or Kindle ePUB

free download Æ eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB ê Eric H. Cline

1177 BC The Year Civilization CollapsedH had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia suddenly ceased to exist along with writing systems technology and monumental architecture But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown How did it happenIn this major new account of the causes of this First Dark Ages Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures ranging from invasion and revolt to earthuakes drought and the cutting of international trade routes Bringing to life the vibrant mu. Half the book is the endnotes which was great because I was getting a little weary It's not exactly a narrative history but of a Cliff's Notes version of all the scholarship that has been done on the theories of the Late Bronze Age collapse I could have used context about the players in the century long drama and clarity There's a lot of backtracking from various theories since no one knows for sure the who what where and why about any of it There are scattered facts and conclusions every set of facts has prompted different conclusions and Cline clutters the narrative by removing one factor to put forth one scholarly theory then replacing it and removing another in order to describe another theory It became a garbled mess after awhileStill it's been nearly 20 years since I last was in this kind of academic discussions and it was interesting to see how the Sea Peoples' theory has changed over time with the wealth of recent discoveries By the end however I was wishing that Cline had chosen a theory or two to focus on instead of being an all the facts in the pot impartial observerThe writing itself was pretty dry in most places though there were some moments that were engagingly written history This book would be a fine launching point for historical fiction or accessible popular history

Eric H. Cline ê 7 review

In 1177 BC marauding groups known only as the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline as did most of the surrounding civilizations After centuries of brilliance the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades No Minoans or Mycenaeans No Trojans Hittites or Babylonians The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium BC whic. A representation of the mural on the northern wall of Ramesses III's mortuary temple depicting his victory over the Sea People But see also this link for a larger clearer version of this image The collapse of the late Bronze Age cultures in the eastern Mediterranean redux Within a few decades around 1200 BCE most of the thriving cities around the eastern Mediterranean had been burnt to the ground abandoned or reduced to a shadow of their former selves including Mycenae Thebes and Tiryns on the Grecian peninsula Knossos on Crete and Troy in western Anatolia to mention only names which are widely known The worst of this Catastrophe as Robert Drews termed it appears to have taken place in Anatolia Syria and the Levant leading to the collapse of the Hittite Empire and the smaller kingdoms located in that region Mesopotamia was not affected apparently it was too far inland but the Egyptians had to fight for their lives multiple times between 1208 and 1176 BCE and managed to defeat the marauders we have come to call the Sea People as well as the Libyans twice following the formula of a 19th century French historian Nonetheless the Egyptians were sufficiently weakened that their empire began to contract markedly the victories over the Sea People were the swan song of the New Kingdom Moreover a Dark Age lasting as long as 400 years commenced on the Greek peninsula and the Aegean isles where populations decreased and often moved to easily defended fastnesses The light finally began to shine there again in the age of the Homeric poets which I discuss in my review of Moses Finley's The World of Odysseus Last summer I wrote about Robert Drews' The End of the Bronze Age Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe CA 1200 BC 1993 which reviewed the many extant theories about the causes of the Catastrophe and then proposed another But many uestions remained unanswered and the yet hypothetical nature of all the explanations was painfully obvious Inaugurating a new series in ancient history Princeton University Press has recently released 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed 2014 by Eric H Cline which I've read in the expectation that some improvement in our grasp of those distant events had been made in the intervening two decades Such is indeed the case Three of the five chapters of this book present a fascinating picture of the civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean in the three centuries preceding the Catastrophe employing archaeological and written evidence the latter primarily inscriptions found in Egypt and the wonderful baked clay tablets of the Middle East It is now known that prior to the Catastrophe there was a flourishing trade and active diplomacy all across the eastern Mediterranean As one example of many I learned about the remarkable Uluburun shipwreck of a 50 foot long Bronze Age trading vessel off the coast of Turkey which has been dated to about 1300 BCE using multiple methods and was discovered in 1982 at a depth of 150 feet The wreck in situ A museum's cross section of the ship's hold which contained hippopotamus and elephant ivory raw glass storage jars full of barley resin spices and wine and most precious of all a ton of tin and ten tons of copper to make bronze The goods came from as far away as Afghanistan Nubia Italy and the Balkans Cline takes the opportunity to rehearse his suggestion that the Homeric Trojan War was a vague memory of Mycenaean warriors taking part in a great rebellion in Asia Minor against the Hittites around 1430 BCE Whatever one may think of that particular idea the splendid shade of the past he summons up in these chapters and the extensive bibliography have added an entire new wing to my groaning TBR list After setting the stage he comes to the evidence for and the theories about the Catastrophe which some scholars prefer to call the Collapse Cline provides a site by site description of some of the destruction he and Drews have surprisingly little overlap here as well as the dating results and attendant controversies He also briefly reviews the various theories proposed to explain the Catastrophe though here Drews' discussion is both extensive and detailed4 Both indicate objections to each of the theories and establish convincingly that no one of the causes including the Sea People can explain all of the observed destruction and conseuent decline and re making of the cultures of the region Both suggest the possibility that all of the proposed causes could have contributed cumulatively to the observed phenomena Cline calls it a perfect storm of calamities Drews suggested his own theory but admitted it is only a hypothesis And Cline concludes that though the causes of the Catastrophe must have been complex we neither know all of them nor do we know which were critical So the up to date conclusion is We don't know That is in any case better than believing in an incorrect hypothesis What we have now is a somewhat clearer picture of what happened where and when; that picture is still evolving Before reading this book I had not appreciated that the late Bronze Age was a kind of Golden Age in the eastern Mediterranean both economically and culturally Just the kind of thing that draws my further attention This is under debate by the experts since they are not certain when Knossos was burnt to the ground But whenever Knossos itself may have been destroyed violence and a complete change of settlement patterns at the beginning of the 12th century have been verified archaeologically all over Crete As part of this series' evident goal to interest modern readers in those ancient times Cline throws in many intriguing tidbits For example aware of the Pharoah Thutmose III's successful tactics in the battle of Megiddo in 1479 BCE apparently the first battle in history recorded on a temple wall for the edification of persons not present General Edmund Allenby repeated them in 1918 at Megiddo against the Germans and Turks with the same positive results An excerpt from the inscriptions on Ramesses III's mortuary temple gives a taste of ancient Egyptian imperial rhetoric Those who reached my frontier their seed is not; their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever Those who came forward together on the sea the full flame was in front of them at the river mouths while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore They were dragged in enclosed and prostrated on the beach killed and made into heaps from tail to head Their ships and their goods were as if fallen into the water I have made the lands turn back from even mentioning Egypt; for when they pronounce my name in their land then they are burned up I wouldn't want to get on his bad side The exchange of goods and ideas was so thoroughly developed that historians of art now speak of an International Style present at the end of the Bronze Age Cline calls the era this cosmopolitan age 4 With an important exception Since the appearance of Drews' book environmental scientists have established by multiple means that towards the end of the Bronze Age there was a climactic change in the eastern Mediterranean which entailed a 300 year period of relative drought There is written evidence of the resulting famine at least until the civilizations collapsed In Egypt of course due to the exceptional nature of the Nile River this period of famine did not occur but it might have contributed to the weakening of the Hittite Empire and partially explained why so many Mycenaean Greeks left the mainland for the western coast of the Near East Rating

read 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed

1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed characters Û eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB ✓ In 1177 BC marauding groups known only as the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline as did most of the surrounding ciLticultural world of these great civilizations he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuriesA compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship 1177 BC sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to and ultimately destroyed the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece. Like frogs around a pond civilizations and city states dotted the Mediterranean over 3200 years ago These civilizations were in contact and had relations in war and peace They were Egypt The Canaanites the Hittites the Minoans the Mycenae the Assyrians all connected through the Mediterranean Something caused them to collapse or suffer major disruption in and around 1177 bce The various culprits have been Earthuakes Climate change causing famine rebellion warfare and a mysterious raider referred by the Egyptians as sea peoples and finally maybe a confluence of these factors that lead to a systems collapse This a fascinating exploration of how a somewhat cosmopolitan bronze age civilization collapsed with a kind of haunting relevance to us today facing similar crisesVideo of a talk by the author