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Rethinking Hell Characters ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Õ Most evangelical Christians believe that those people who are not saved before they die will be punished in hell forever But is this what the Bible truly teaches Do Christians need to rethink their understanding of hell In the late twentieE challenged to reconsider their views about the traditional teachings of the church on hell or they will be convinced that the conditionalist view of hell is the right biblical teaching Claude F Mariottini author of Rereading the Biblical Text Rethinking Hell is a much needed compendium of classic and contemporary defenses of conditional immortalism a view that offers a welcome alternative to universalism and the traditional concept of eternal conscious torment Bringing together about twenty proponents of conditionalism theologians biblical scholars and philosophers Rethinking Hell is destined to be the definitive sourcebook on the topic for years to come Highly recommended James S Spiegel author of The Benefits of Providence Christopher M Date is the principal blogger and podcaster of the Rethinking Hell project and works as a software engineer in the Pacific Northwest Gregory G Stump is a graduate of Fuller Theological Seminary and serves as a pastor at a Baptist church in Southern California Joshua W Anderson earned an MA in Philosophy from Talbot School of Theology and an MA in Theology from Fuller Theological Seminary; he teaches apologetics and theology at Ecclesia College in Springdale Arkans. Excellent Broad A great pointer to the fantastically strong argument for conditional immortality both biblically and philosophically

Christopher M. Date ò 2 Characters

Most evangelical Christians believe that those people who are not saved before they die will be punished in hell forever But is this what the Bible truly teaches Do Christians need to rethink their understanding of hell In the late twentieth century a growing number of evangelical theologians biblical scholars and philosophers began to reject the traditional doctrine of eternal conscious torment in hell in favor of a minority theological perspective called conditional immortality This view contends that the unsaved are resurrected to face divine judgment just as Christians have always believed but due to the fact that immortality is only given to those who are in Christ the unsaved do not exist forever in hell Instead they face the punishment of the second death an end to their conscious existence This volume brings together excerpts from a variety of well respected evangelical thinkers including John Stott John Wenham and E Earl Ellis as they articulate the biblical theological and philosophical arguments for conditionalism These readings will give thoughtful Christians strong evidence that there are indeed compelling reasons for rethinking hell As and people open their minds to rethink the doctrine. Rethinking Hell is a compendium of readings by evangelical authors who advocate conditionalism Conditionalism—also known as “conditional immortality” and “annihilationism”—is the belief that hell is “the wicked’s final total destruction” not their “unending conscious torture” as Edward W Fudge states the distinction in his essay It is a minority position among evangelical Christians but one that has been gaining ground since the publication of Fudge’s The Fire That Consumes in 1984Because conditionalism differs from the traditional understanding of hell as eternal conscious torment and because traditionalism is far and away the majority position among Christians including evangelicals and Pentecostals my theological tribes it might be helpful to summarize why conditionalists think theirs is the correct biblical interpretation Glenn A People’s essay “Introduction to Evangelical Conditionalism” outlines its “principle arguments” under four headings1 Immortality “Eternal life in the sense of life without end is not a natural human possession We are bereft of it because of sin and God promises to give it to those who are united to Christ Immortality is therefore not universal or inherent but conditional” See for example 2 Timothy 19b–102 A World Without Evil “The biblical writers anticipate a time when everything that exists will be united under Christ” for example Ephesians 19–10 and 1 Corinthians 1524–28 “Creation itself will be brought into a state of sinless perfection to the praise of God’s glory and the dualistic portrait of eternity with heaven on one side and hell on the other side finds no home in Scripture”3 Substitutionary Atonement “The New Testament is replete with the language of Jesus dying for sin for sinners and for us Whatever else this might mean it at least means that in Christ’s passion and ultimately his death we see what comes of sin” for example 1 Peter 3184 Destruction “Evangelical conditionalists observe that Scripture uses a range of language and images to refer to the fate of humanity without salvation through Christ punishment darkness fire death destruction being blotted out and so on Without any doubt however the overwhelming preponderance of the clearest such language speaks of the final death and destruction of the enemies of God” For example see Matthew 1028 2 Thessalonians 19 2 Peter 26Arguments 1 3 and 4 recur through Rethinking Hell’s twenty two chapters In addition to these biblical arguments several of the chapters make historical arguments to the effect that conditionalism was a live option among Christianity’s theologians in the second and third centuries Only with Augustine in the fourth century does eternal conscious torment become the majority point of view one shared by Augustine’s descendants in the Middle Ages the Reformation and Evangelical RevivalismAt a philosophical level conditionalists argue that eternal conscious torment is disportionate punishment thus violating the character of God and the lex talionis principle of biblical law Traditionalists typically respond in one of two ways to this First that an eternity of punishment is appropriate since sin is an offense against an infinite God This is a longstanding reply memorably articulated by Thomas Auinas More recently a second reply has been offered an eternity of punishment is warranted because in hell sinners continue to rebel against God As C S Lewis memorably put it “The doors of hell are locked from the inside”The most common objection to conditionalism is the use of the adjective “eternal” to describe the fate of the wicked Jesus juxtaposed “eternal life” and “eternal punishment” in Matthew 2546 Since Augustine this has been taken to show that the life of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked are both everlasting The standard conditionalist reply is that the conseuences of hell that is annihilation are everlasting not the experience of hell that is punishment While this understanding may work in many cases traditionalists argue that it doesn’t work for Revelation 2010 which speaks of the devil the beast and the false prophet being thrown into “the lack of burning sulphur” where they will be “tormented day and night for ever and ever” In 2015 anyone “whose name was not found written in the book of life” was thrown into the lake as well presumably to suffer the same fateI mention these objections and replies to illustrate basic elements in the debate between traditionalists and conditionalistsRethinking Hell is a good book though if you are looking to purchase and read just one book advocating conditional immortality I would recommend the third edition of Edward W Fudge’s The Fire That Consumes Advocates in both camps agree that this is the classic modern statement of the position Still this book has its value even if—or perhaps especially if—you do not agree with its conclusionsBook ReviewedChristopher M Date Gregory G Stump and Joshua W Anderson eds Rethinking Hell Readings in Evangelical Conditionalism Eugene OR Cascade 2014PS If you liked my review please click “Helpful” on my review page

Free read Í PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ò Christopher M. Date

Rethinking HellOf final punishment this book will be a valuable resource and reference I wish it had been available when I did my own research This volume is extensive inclusive and impressive in scope and approach I am delighted to endorse it A book for our time it should enjoy great success Edward Fudge author of The Fire That Consumes This volume is to be welcomed and recommended for its usefulness in gathering together some of the most significant contributions from leading scholars and preachers who uestion whether the eternal conscious punishment of the wicked is a correct interpretation of the biblical teaching I Howard Marshall Professor Emeritus of New Testament University of Aberdeen Scotland Because the case for annihilationism is generally not well understood this expertly chosen selection from often difficult to find writings along with helpful introductory essays will be immensely valuable to the church Everyone regardless of their current understanding can welcome this historical and biblical resource that will make fruitful dialogue possible than ever Terrance Tiessen Professor Emeritus of Systematic Theology and Ethics Providence Theological Seminary Colorado Those who read this book either will b. Should Christians re think the doctrine of hell The editors of this new volume certainly think so At the outset I should disclose I personally know two the editors Greg Stump was my pastor at the church I attended in California and Josh Anderson was a friend and fellow student at Talbot School of Theology Theirs is a compendium of articles written over the last hundred years or so that claim three things 1 the human soul is not naturally immortal 2 the duration of punishment suffered by the wicked is finite and 3 the effect of the final punishment on the wicked is the cessation of their existence The authors of these articles hailing from vastly different neighborhoods of evangelicalism and the broader Christian world argue for each of these claims via biblical exegesis historical survey theological consideration and philosophic argument That these three claims that go by the names annihilationism conditionalism or conditional immortality could garner support from such a diverse cross section of believers merits serious attention I will refer to this view as conditionalism hereafterThe case for conditionalism can begin in different places One might be motivated by the biblical language of destruction and read the metaphors of unuenchable fire and undying worms as referring to powers that bring about the end of one's existence Or one might begin with considerations about the human soul and the asymmetry of its properties in the afterlife the righteous are given the gift of immortality while the wicked are brought to the end of their mortality which counts as the everlasting effect of divine punishment Another starting place could be the sense of disproportionality the doctrine of eternal conscious torment reuires no finite sin could merit infinite punishment Still another could be a moral or aesthetic judgment about salvation history a really good or beautiful world the kind that God would create and re make would not include a place where there is everlasting miseryNo matter where one begins one can marshall biblical evidence to support one's case Texts that speak of destruction and death seem to indicate an end of existence rather than eternal endurance Matthew 713 14; 1028; Luke 133; 1729 30; John 316; Romans 623; 2 Thessalonians 18 9; Heb 1039 2 Peter 26 and those that are marshalled in support of eternal conscious torment can be better read as an unendurable punishment that causes the eternal effect of non existence Texts that support the idea that immortality is contingent upon God's grace and not an essential property of the human soul are found in Genesis 322 23 Revelation 27 2 Timothy 110 and 1 Corinthians 1550 53 And most interestingly the New Testament speaks of a proportionality condition with respect to punishment in Luke 1247 48If conditionalism is right then why has the view of eternal conscious torment been so dominant throughout church history Answer early on the the Church Fathers were influenced by Platonic philosophy which taught the soul was naturally immortal This influence reached its apogee with Augustine who argued that eternal conscious torment was the only interpretive option available since the soul could not be annihilated Not even an omnipotent God could undo his own handiwork once made the human soul cannot be unmade; thusthe full power of God's wrath could only be expressed in unending tormentThere are objections to conditionalism of course most which focus on matters of biblical interpretation and I will not rehearse them here Since I am trained as a philosopher I will focus on some of the philosophical motivations for the view With respect to proportionality the objection that finite sins do not merit infinite punishment is ambiguous In what sense are sins finite Is it in terms of the amount of time it takes to commit them If so why couldn't this undermine conditionalism as much as it does traditionalism After all the conseuences of sins are eternal in both Interestingly this does not go unobserved by a contributor in this volume who argues that a good God could never perform divine capital punishment on sinners and opts for a view where one goes out of existence as a result of one's own spurning divine grace According to this author God is not in the business of meeting out punishment in the afterlife which seems implausible given the biblical evidence cited abovePerhaps the finiteinfinite distinction is to be understood in terms of harm no sin could do infinite harm; therefore it is not worthy of infinite punishment But this is far from obvious Suppose Smith would have repented at time t2 had Jones not murdered him at t1 Since Smith is forever shut out from the presence of God Jones's sin causes Smith an infinite loss Assuming Jones does not repent why shouldn't Jones be suffer this same infinite loss too Thus the proportionality objection proves too little and the goodness of God objection proves too much Conditionalism should probably just stick to the biblical arguments and not wander into these rhetorically empty maneuversOne of the interesting suggestions that deserves attention is how the death of Jesus relates to the kind of punishment the wicked might face Glenn Peoples writes In identifying with sinners and standing in their place Jesus bore what they would have borne Abandonment by God yes Suffering yes But crucially death As a theological consideration I have often wondered if this where we should look to understand the sort of fate we might face if we refuse Christ as our substitute Of course this would assume a version of penal substitutionary atonement that is not definite an assumption that many are not eager to embraceWhile the book becomes repetitive after about 200 pages one cannot help but feel challenged by the depth and breadth of biblical exegesis marshalled in support of a view of hell that is growing in influence RecommendedHere is a short list of the adherentsJohn Stott the British version of Billy Graham conservative AnglicanJohn Wenham a widely cited defender of biblical inerrancy conservative AnglicanJohn Stackhouse the successor of JI Packer at Regent UniversityClark Pinnock the bad boy of the evangelical theology open theistBasil Atkinson helped start Inter Varsity Fellowship evangelical at CambridgeEarl Ellis Baptist theologian at Southwestern conservative evangelicalAnthony Thiselton conservative hermeneutics expert at NottinghamPhilip E Hughes Calvinist theologian who taught at Westminster AnglicanRichard Swinburne Oxford philosopher of religion in a league of his ownIrenaeus Church Father disciple of Polycarp