The Whole Story of Climate characters Ò 107

read & download The Whole Story of Climate

The Whole Story of Climate characters Ò 107 ´ An engaging narrative that describes the important contributions of geology to our understanding of climate change What emerges is a much complex and nuanced picture than is usually presented For information and a book club guide go to wwwclimatewholestorycomAn engaging narrative that describes the important contributions of geology to our und. The author’s knowledge of the topic is considerable The reader gains an informed perspective of the evolving climactic ages of our planet; that is there have been multiple cycles of heating and cooling over the many millions of years of the Earth’s past Notwithstanding one must be careful not to be lulled into a sense of complacency about the threat of climatic change brought on by human economic activity The increase in GHG CO2 in the atmosphere from pre industrial times to the present 280ppm to mid 400s is directly attributable to us To stabilize GHG concentrations in the 550ppm range and limit temperature increases to 2 to 3C according to some studies see The Stern Review and updates will reuired a significant cut in emissions 25% by 2050 Yet even at this level the direct market catastrophic event and the non market eg health environment conflict issues etc will take a considerable toll on growth and welfare The failure to act resolutely may trap us in an irreversible current of temperature increases and feedback loops with devastating results for our grandchildren

E. Kirsten Peters ´ 7 review

Erstanding of climate change What emerges is a much complex and nuanced picture than i. Kirsten Peters stays out of the fray in her book The Whole Story of Climate She is not an Algoreian alarmist and she is not a denier What she presents are facts ascertained by looking into various branches of science which detail how dramatically how freuently and how rapidly climate has changed in the past without the help of man She presents the fact that regardless of any effect man MIGHT have upon the climate earth might well be at the end of an interglacial and what may well follow will be a deep freeze the like of which could have an exceedingly ugly effect upon the global human population I never thought otherwise

read Ü eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB ´ E. Kirsten Peters

The Whole Story of ClimateS usually presented For information and a book club guide go to wwwclimatewholestoryco. Louis Agassiz famous for his work on fossil fish vacationed in the Swiss mountains in 1836 He was skeptical of the idea of De Charpentier that Switzerland had once been covered in ice His observations of glaciers revealed that they flowed and produced lateral and terminal moraines Their movement polished the surrounding bedrock Observation of moraines polished bedrock and glacial erratics well below current glaciers lead him to understand that the valleys had been filled with glaciers at one time This was especially surprising as few had any concept of the polar regions at that timeGeology of the 1800s developed mapping which showed that the Pleistocene glaciers had a southern limit Further various layers showed that climate changes had occurred repeatedly The glacial impact on sealevel was studied with the realization that Scandinavia and the Hudson Bay area are still flexing upward with the removal of the weight of the glaciers The floods from lakes Bonneville and Missoula were recognizedCuvier and Agassiz were the first to study fossilsand recognize that the rock layers represented a seuence through time The revelation of extinctions conflicted with the then current religious view that the earth was created in a perfect and unchanging formIn 1940s and 1950s the study of pollen in peat bogs and carbon 14 dating revealed the cold dry Dryas periods separated by the warmer Oscillations which lead to the warmer Holocene Andrew Douglass pioneered tree ring analysis He felt he could see the eleven year sunspot cycle in the succession of tree rings but but for the period from 1650 to 1720 Walter Maunder showed that during this period the sun had hardly any sunspots and was also the time of Europe's Little Ice Age The author includes a good discussion on the limitations and challenges of dendrochronological researchIce research provides yearly data on temperature through oxygen isotopes gas concentration through air bubbles dust and volcanic ash deposition and trace salts that indicate past wind speeds This information shows that climatic periods often started or ended with rapid climate change events RCCE's which have been as short as a human generation The warm periods have been much shorter than the cold periods occurring in the present 125000 years ago the Eemian 230000 and 325000 years agoMilutin Milankovitch showed that orbital motion causes cycles in the amount of sunlight reaching earth and these cycles correspond to the these warm and cold periods The fit is not exact with the differences attributed to clouds sea to land ratios and snow and ice coverThe author describes the fast tempo Heinrich DansgaardOeschger and Bond cycles but without any timeline to put them into context These have been muted in the Holocene which has been relatively warm and stable In recorded history we have the cold Dark Ages the Medieval Warming and the Little Ice Age that started in 1315 The Medieval Warming was a period of high sunspot activity while the sunspots largely disappeared during the later part of the Little Ice AgeIf this history of the Pleistocene cycles continues the warm Holocene will end and earth will again suffer an extended cold period with advancing glaciers Cooling from the 1940s through the early 1970s created a concern that this change was imminent William Ruddiman has proposed that the development of agriculture has released enough carbon to counter the reversion to cold climate during the HoloceneThe three interacting Milankovitch cycles give the general form of the temperature cycles during the Pleistocene with greenhouse gases following these ups and downs The author goes on to describe the development of the idea of global warming through the IPPC with Mann's hockey stick and McIntyre and McKitrick's discovery of it's flawed basisIn conclusion the author observes that it is still far from clear whether the climate will cycle back to Pleistocene cold or whether global warming will take placePeters states that global underground coal fires release huge amounts of carbon She feels that extinguishing these fires would result in a 2 3 percent reduction in CO2 In describing the problem however she notes how difficult it is to fight such firesThe book is complicated by the geological time scale The author discusses events in the time frame of the Younger Older and Oldest Dryas periods Being American the author then helpfully calibrates everything in football fields The book desperately needs charts The first does not appear until halfway through the book where the temperature record is shown against time in years and football fields but no reference to the named periodsHowever it is an excellent book showing that the global warming narrative is only one of a wide range of possibilities for the future climate of earth